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        Opera is expensive: that much is inevitable. But expensive things are not inevitably the province of the rich unless we abdicate society’s power of choice. We can choose to make opera, and other expensive forms of culture, accessible to those who cannot individually pay for it. The question is: why should we? Nobody denies the imperatives of food, shelter, defense, health and education. But even in a prehistoric cave, mankind stretched out a hand not just to eat, drink or fight, but also to draw. The impulse towards culture, the desire to express and explore the world through imagination and representation is fundamental. In Europe, this desire has found fulfillment in the masterpieces of our music, art, literature and theatre. These master-pieces are the touchstones for all our efforts; they are the touchstones for the possibilities to which human thought and imagination may aspire; they carry the most profound messages that can be sent from one human to another.







My advisor, who was an Asian American, had a strong addiction to smoking and drinking, and an irritable temper as well. However, he appreciated the industry and the solid basic knowledge of students with Asian origins. He also had a particularly keen insight into the mentality of these students. So it was not surprising that all the students in his lab were from Asian except one from Germany. The advisor was so straight-forward as to paste an eye-catching notice on the door of his lab, which read: “It is a must that all the research assistants in the lab work from 10 to 12 pm every day, and seven days a week. Furthermore, they should spare no effort in working hours. ” The advisor was well-known for his strictness and severity throughout the university. During the three and a half years of my work there, fourteen students were recruited into his lab, but only five stayed until after they had graduated with a PH.D degree.



I agree to some extent with my imaginary English reader. American literary historians are perhaps prone to view their own national scene too narrowly, mistaking prominence for uniqueness. They do over-phrase their own literature, or certainly its minor figures. And Americans do swing from aggressive over-phrase of their literature to an equally unfortunate, imitative deference. But then, the English themselves are somewhat insular in their literary appraisals. Moreover, in fields where they are not pre-eminent --- e.g. in painting and music --- they too alternate between boasting of native products and copying those of the Continent. How many English paintings try to look as though they were done in Paris; how many times have we read in articles that they really represent an “English tradition” after all.

To speak of American literature, then, is not to assert that it is completely unlike that of Europe. Broadly speaking, America and Europe have kept step. At any given moment the traveler could find examples in both of the same architecture, the same styles in dress, the same books on the shelves. Ideas have crossed the Atlantic as freely as men and merchandise, though sometimes more slowly. When I refer to American habit, thoughts etc., I intend some sort of qualification to precede the word, for frequently the difference between America and Europe (especially England) will be one of degree, sometimes only of a small degree. The amount of divergence is a subtle affair, liable to perplex the Englishman when he looks at America. He is looking at a country which in important senses grew out of his own, when in several ways still resembles his own --- and which is yet a foreign country. There are odd overlappings and abrupt unfamiliarities; kinship yields to a sudden alienation, as when we hail a person across the street, only to discover from his blank response that we have mistaken a stranger for a friend.







1998年八级汉译英参考译文     During my short stay in Taiwan, I had seen quite a few places, paid visits to my old friends and made a lot of new ones as well. How Chinese people could become more powerful and prosperous in the 21st century became the most important topic we would be engaged in whenever staying together. In spite of their different social environments and life experiences, young people from Chinese mainland and those from Taiwan have in mind the excellent Chinese traditional culture and share the common ideal of rejuvenating China. The turn of the century has ushered in a great new epoch. Our motherland is becoming more and more prosperous and powerful. People across the Straits are sure to increase their contacts and strive together to promote the reunification of the country as soon as possible. The golden opportunities and tremendous challenges offered by the turn of the century have pushed the young people to the forefront of history. It is their turn to answer at such a transitional phase the question how they should embrace the new century replete with hopes.



       In some societies people want children for what might be called familial reasons: to extend the family line or the family name, to propitiate the ancestors; to enable the proper functioning of religious rituals involving the family. Such reasons may seem thin in the modern, secularized society but they have been and are powerful indeed in other places.

       In addition, one class of family reasons shares a border with the following category, namely, having children in order to maintain or improve a marriage; to hold the husband or occupy the wife; to repair or rejuvenate the marriage; to increase the number of children on the assumption that family happiness lies that way. The point is underlined by its converse: in some societies the failure to bear children (or males) is a threat to the marriage and a ready cause for divorce.

       Beyond all that is the profound significance of children to the very institution of the family itself. To many people, husband and wife alone do not seem a proper family --- they need children to enrich the circle, to validate its family character, to gather the redemptive influence of offspring. Children need the family, but the family seems also to need children, as the social institution uniquely available, at least in principle, for security, comfort, assurance, and direction in a changing, often hostile, world. To most people, such a home base, in the literal sense, needs more than one person for sustenance and in generational extension.







温哥华(Vancouver)  的辉煌是温哥华人的智慧和勤奋的结晶,其中包括多民族的贡献。加拿大地广人稀,国土面积比中国还大,人口却不足3000万。吸收外来移民,是加拿大长期奉行的国策。可以说,加拿大除了印第安人外,无一不是外来移民,不同的只是时间长短而已。温哥华则更是世界上屈指可数的多民族城市。现今180万温哥华居民中,有一半不是在本地出生的,每四个居民中就有一个是亚洲人。而25万华人对温哥华的经济转型起着决定性作用,其中有一半是近五年才来到温哥华地区的,使温哥华成为亚洲以外最大的中国人聚居地。


       The glory of Vancouver is attributable to the intelligence and industry of Vancouver, different ethnic minorities included. Canada has a vast sparsely-populated land, which is even greater than that of China. However, its population is much less than 30 million. Consequently, Canada always observes such a national policy as to attract immigrants from the outside world. It can safely be asserted that except for American Indians, all the citizens are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. The only difference between them is their time of settlement in Canada. Vancouver can be ranked among the handful of multi-ethnic cities throughout the world. Half of Vancouver’s 1.8 million residents were born elsewhere. In addition, one of every four residents is from Asia. 250 thousand Chinese Canadians play a decisive role in facilitating the economic transformation of the city. And half of them came to settle in the city in the past five years, making the city the biggest gathering center of Chinese outside Asia.



If people mean anything at all by the expression “untimely death”, they must believe that some deaths run on a better schedule than others. Death in old age is rarely called untimely—a long life is thought to be a full one. But with the passing of a young person, one assumes that the best years lay ahead and the measure of that life was still to be taken.

History denies this, of course. Among prominent summer deaths, one recalls those of Marilyn Monroe and James Deans, whose lives seemed equally brief and complete. Writers cannot bear the fact the poet John Keats died at 26, and only half playfully judge their own lives as failures when they pass that year. The idea that the life cut short is unfulfilled is illogical because lives are measured by the impressions they leave on the world and by their intensity and virtue.












     The world’s first-generation museums were nature museums, which made use of fossils and specimens and others to show people the history of evolution of the earth and various kinds of living creatures. The industrial technology museums were known as the second-generation museums. They showed the achievements brought about by industrial civilization at its different stages. Despite their great contributions to the dissemination of scientific knowledge, these two generations of museums treated visitors merely as passive onlookers.

       The third-generation museums operate on brand-new concepts. Visitors are encouraged to conduct operation with their own hands and observe whole-heartedly with their own eyes. In this way, they may get closer to advanced science and technology and go on to explore it.



Possession for its own sake or in competition with the rest of the neighborhood would have been Thoreau's idea of the low levels. The active discipline of heightening one's perception of what is enduring in nature would have been his idea of the high. What he saved from the low was time and effort he could spend on the high. Thoreau certainly disapproved of starvation, but he would put into feeding himself only as much effort as would keep him functioning for more important efforts.

Effort is the gist of it. There is no happiness except as we take on life-engaging difficulties. Short of the impossible, as Yeats put it, the satisfaction we get from a lifetime depends on how high we choose our difficulties. Robert Frost was thinking in something like the same terms when he spoke of “the pleasure of taking pains”. The mortal flaw in the advertised version of happiness is in the fact that it purports to be effortless.

We demand difficulty even in our games. We demand it because without difficulty there can be no game. A game is a way of making something hard for the fun of it. The rules of the game are an arbitrary imposition of difficulty. When someone ruins the fun, he always does so by refusing to play by the rules. It is easier to win at chess if you are free, at your pleasure, to change the wholly arbitrary rules, but the fun is in winning within the rules. No difficulty, no fun.











        Qiao Yu took to fishing in his late years. He once said: “Where there is fish and water, there is good environment, and good environment can make one happy. The best places for fishing, it seems to me, are not fishing-ponds with hungry fish and comfortable chairs for fishermen, but attractive natural water bodies in out-of-the-way places.” Fishing is an outdoor sport that can help improve one’s temperament. It is good for one’s health, mentally as well as physically. “Fishing falls into three stages,” as Qiao put it, “In the first stage, the interest lies in eating; in the second, in fishing as well as in eating fish, while in the third, one is mainly interested in fishing. At that time faced with a pool of green water, one casts aside all anxieties and worries and enjoys a good rest, and feels completely relaxed.”



Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be; rather, they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining pretence and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and acting knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask.

Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking and to use their own knowledge. They can separate facts from opinions and don't pretend to have all the answers. They listen to others; evaluate what they say, but come to their own conclusions. Although winners can admire and respect other people, they are not totally defined, demolished, bound, or awed by them.

Winners do not play “helpless”, nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume responsibility for their own lives.









        Nature does the same favor to every human being, be he rich or poor. Therefore, all the people, with no exception, are profoundly dependent on Nature. Nowhere is it truer than in the countryside, where people have been living the same life for hundreds of years: They grow crops and grapes, brew wines to drink, feed the cattle and milk the cows, root weeds and plant flowers. They go to church to say their prayers at weekends, and play music instruments, dance and sing songs on the plaza during festivals. Then yesterday’s farms are still sweet homes today. In this way each area has its own legends, and the customs pass down.



In his classic novel, “The Pioneers”, James, Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses, a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest, “Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?” She asks. He’s astonished she can’t see them. “Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.

Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, “Life for the American is always becoming, never being.”



詹姆斯.费尼莫尔.库柏在其经典小说《拓荒者》中,记述了主人公—一位土地开发商—带着表妹游览一座他将要建造的城市的情景。他向表妹描绘了宽阔的街道,排排的房屋,俨然一座熙来攘往的大都市。然而表妹环顾四周,却一脸迷茫,她所看到的只是一片森林。于是她问:“你要给我看的美景和改观在哪里啊?”他很惊讶,她居然还不能心领神会。便回答说:“还问哪里?这不到处都是嘛。”因为尽管他还没有把它们真正建成,他却早已在心中构想好了。它们对他来说是如此具体真实仿佛它们早已建成。库柏在这里揭示了美国人独有的特征,即前瞻性:他们能够站在未来的高度来看现在的一切;摆脱过去束缚而更加亲近未来。正如埃尔伯特.爱因斯坦曾言:“对美国人来说,生活总是进取,而非守成”。/ ……生活永远是个变量,而非定量。”/“生活对美国人来说总是一个过程,而不是一种结果。”





Before I was taken ill, I had been a spoiled child of my parents, getting things my way in the family. Once isolated and confined to a small house on the slope of the garden, I suddenly found myself in disfavor and my wings clipped. One spring evening, with myriads of flowers in full bloom in the garden, my parents held a garden party in honor of many guests, whose arrival at once filled the place with laughing chats. In the small house on the slope, I quietly lifted the curtain, only to be met by a great and prosperous world with my elder brothers and sisters and my cousins among the guests, all in jubilation. All at once, seized by a fit of forlorn rage, I could not help bursting into tears.



For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.

I am lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a break, when for the time being I feel empty and need filling up. And I am lonely sometimes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of people and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sorted out.

Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my self is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and, perhaps, by looking again at each one as though it were a person.

It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment comes when the world falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconscious, bring back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly understood.










We should not be too romantic in interpersonal relations. Human beings are interesting in that they tend to first see good in a new acquaintance. This is like dining in a restaurant. You will be not only favorably impressed with the first dish or cold dishes, but also profuse in praise of the first two courses. However, the more you have, the more sober you become until the dinner ends up with all the flaws exposed. Consequently, your joy would give way to anger; your praises to criticism or even fault-finding; and your nodding in agreement to shaking the head. What accounts for all this is, in the first place, you are hungry when you start to eat. As the saying goes, “Hunger is the best sauce”, and vice versa. And secondly, unfamiliarity, rather than familiarity, breeds freshness in you when you start to eat in a restaurant new to you, which is the so-called effect of unfamiliarization. 



It is simple enough to say that since books have classesfiction, biography, poetrywe should separate them and take from each what it is right that each should give us. 1Yet few people ask from books what books can give us. 2Most commonly we come to books with blurred and divided minds, asking of fiction that it shall be true, of poetry that it shall be false, of biography that it shall be flattering, of history that it shall enforce our own prejudices.  3If we could banish all such preconceptions when we read, that would be an admirable beginning. Do not dictate to your author; try to become him. Be his fellow-worker and accomplice.  4If you hang back, and reserve and criticize at first, you are preventing yourself from getting the fullest possible value from what you read.   5But if you open your mind as widely as possible, then signs and hints of almost imperceptible fineness, from the twist and turn of the first sentences, will bring you into the presence of a human being unlike any other. Steep yourself in this, acquaint yourself with this, and soon you will find that your author is giving you, or attempting to give you, something far more definite.


既然书籍分门别类,有小说、传记、诗歌等,我们也应区别对待,从中汲取它们各自所能提供的 --- 此话说起来再容易不过了。1然而,人们对书籍往往求非所予。2开卷之时,我们常常思想模糊,思维割裂,苛求小说真实,认定诗歌造作,视传记为美化,期望史书认同一己之见。3阅读之时,若能摒弃所有此类成见,那将是一个可喜的开端。不要对作者指指点点,而应尝试设身处地,做读者的同道和“同谋”。4若是你一开始便固步自封,先入为主,求全责备,你就不可能最大限度地从你所读的书中获益。5但是,你若能大大敞开思想,那么,开篇的那几行曲径通幽的文字,那若明若暗的微妙表达和深意将把你带到一个独具特色的灵魂面前。投身其中,知晓此境,不用很久,你就会发现作者正在传递给你的,或试图传递给你的,原来如此显豁。






What is the significance of life? Is there any criterion for its measurement? Difficult as it is to advance an absolute one, it will not be so to judge the very meaning of one’s existence generally from whether he is serious about life and what his attitudes are towards work and life.

Throughout the ages, all people of accomplishment take their lives seriously. As long as they are alive, they would rather devote themselves to more work and study than let a single minute slip by in vain. And the same is true of the common laborers as well as the great statesmen and thinkers in our country.



         On May 13, 1940, Winston Churchill, the newly appointed British Prime Minister, gave his first speech to Parliament. He was preparing the people for a long battle against Nazi aggression, at a time when England’s survival was still in doubt.

         “…I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.

You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea, and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime.

You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word. It is victory. Victory at all costs --- Victory in spite of all terrors --- for without victory there is no survival.

Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward his goal.

I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, ‘Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength.’”




         你们也许会问,我们的目的是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利 --- 不惜付出一切代价的胜利,藐视一切恐怖的胜利。这是因为,没有胜利就没有我们的生存。







         The Chinese nation has never believed in human supremacy. And the notion finds full expression in the philosophy, literature and art that humans coexist with other species in nature with a proportionally proper rather than an absolutely dominant position. Therefore we generally suffer less depression than Westerners, as the degree of the suffering varies with that of our desire and ambition. People in the agricultural society have much less enjoyment than those in the industrial society, and hence less desire. Moreover, the main Chinese ancient philosophy of life is always to be free from the encumbrance or enslavement of the outside world. Certainly there are among us misers who, however, pale in the presence of the misers and careerists depicted by Moliere and Balzac. In comparison with Westerners, the Chinese people, easier to be satisfied, are mostly unbiased, peaceful, unworldly and guileless.



Chinese people has never thought of human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times, whose behavior takes a quite appropriate proportion with all others in our natural world in both aspects of philosophy and arts, but not as absolute dominant ruler. Therefore, our bitterness and depression are basically less than those of westerners, because the intensity of which is growing with the changing of one’s desire and ambition. People in the agriculture society enjoyed far less than people in the  industry society, thus their wants are far less either. Besides, ancient Chinese always regard “not confined by material, not driven material” as uppermost philosophy.






Right beside this gorgeous picture, a flock of sheep are hanging their heads in search of food by the riverside. Almost none of them have raised their heads to have a glance at the beautiful dusk. Perhaps, they want to male use of every minute to enjoy their last chew before being driven home. This is a scene of the Yellow River bank, where the shepherd has disappeared and no one knows where he is resting himself. Only these creatures are appreciating the dusk freely. Here, the exuberant water and grass have nourished them, with each of them growing very fat. When approaching, you will find their white teeth and rich but innocent facial expressions.



Beside this picture with profusions of colors, a group of sheep are lowing their heads, eating by the river bank. Hardly none of them would spare some time to raise their eyes to have a glance at the beautiful dusk. They are, perhaps, taking use of every minute to enjoy their last chew before being driven home. This is a picture of the Yellow River bank, in which the shepherd disappears, and no one knows where he is resting himself. Only the sheep, however, as free creatures, are joyfully appreciating the dusk. The exuberant water plants have nutrited the sheep, making them grow as fat as balls. When approaching near, you would find their lily-white teeth and a variety of innocent facial impressions.



Just beside this splendid picture, a herd of sheep are grazing with bent heads by the riverside. However, none of them cares to look up and throw a glance at the beautiful twilight. Perhaps they are using the last moment for another chew before going home. This is a scene taking place on the shore of the Yellow River. The shepherd, who is nowhere to be seen, is having a rest in an unknown place, leaving these living things to enjoy this moment of dusk with full ease and freedom. Here the water is so fresh and the grass so tender that all of them are well-fed and chubby. If you approach them, you will see their snow-white teeth as well as their rich innocent expressions.



Just beside this splendid picture, a flock of sheep are grazing with bent heads by the riverside. Hardly any of them cares to look up and throw a glance at the beautiful twilight. Perhaps they are using the last moment for another chew before going home. This is a scene taking place on the shore of the Yellow River. The shepherd, who is nowhere to be seen, is having a rest in an unknown place, leaving these living things to enjoy this moment of dusk with full ease and freedom. Here the water grass is so luxuriant and tender that the sheep have battened on them. If you approach them, you will see their snow-white teeth as well as their rich innocent expressions.



        Scientific and technological advances are enabling us to comprehend the furthest reaches of the cosmos, the most basic constituents of matter, and the miracle of life.

        At the same time, today, the actions, and inaction, of human beings imperil not only life on the planet, but the very life of the planet.

        Globalization is making the world smaller, faster and richer. Still, 9/11 and avian flu remind us that a smaller, faster world is not necessarily a safer world.

        Our world is bursting with knowledge --- but desperately in need of wisdom. Now, when sound bites are getting shorter, when instant messages crowd out essays, and when individual lives grow more crazy, college graduates capable of deep reflection are what our world needs.

        For all these reasons I believed --- and I believed even more strongly today --- in the unique and irreplaceable mission of universities.

























I think everyone, in effect, has a small garden or a flower bed of his own, namely, our inner world. Just as there is a need for human beings to tap into their own intelligence, as is the case with their inner world. The difference between human beings and animals, apart from the various aspects which are universally known, may probably lie in the fact that human beings have an inner world. Heart is no more than an important organ whereas the inner world constitutes a landscape, which gradually takes its shape under the continuous influence from the outside world. So great is the importance that everyone attaches to the physical condition of his own heart or those of his closest and dearest ones that merely a minor disease would enduringly weigh on his mind . however, not everyone cares about the inner world, delighted or gloomy, of himself and his beloved ones.



But, as has been true in many other cases, when they were at last married, the most ideal of situations was found to have been changed to the most practical. Instead of having shared their original duties, and as school-boys would say, going halves, they discovered that the cares of life had been doubled. This led to some distressing moments for both our friends; they understood suddenly that instead of dwelling in heaven they were still upon earth, and had made themselves slaves to new laws and limitations. Instead of being freer and happier than ever before, they had assumed new responsibilities; they had established a new household, and must fulfil in some way or another the obligations of it. They looked back with affection to their engagement; they had been longing to have each other to themselves, apart from the world, but it seemed that they never felt so keenly that they were still units in modern society.






Grade Score Description



5.  10—9 分 Excellent Translation

The translation faithfully reflects all the original passage with only 1 or 2 minor errors in vocabulary, syntax, punctuation or spelling. The translation is elegant (appropriate choice of words, a variety in sentence patterns).


4.                         8—7 分 Good Translation With Few Inaccuracies

The translation reflects almost all the original passage with relatively few significant errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling or punctuation. The translation is readable (generally clear, smooth and cohesive).



3.                         6—5分Passable Translation With Some Inaccuracies

The translation adequately reflects most of the original passage with occasional errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling or punctuation. The translation is, for the most part, readable.


2.  4—3 分 Inadequate Translation With Frquent Inaccuracies


The translation only reflects about half of the original passage with frequent errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling or punctuation. The translation is, in some parts, unreadable.


1.                         2-1 分  Poor Translation

The translation reflects less than half of the original passage. Almost all sentences contain errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling or punctuation. The translation is , for the most part, unreadable.