论语10 乡党篇第十

发布时间:2019-10-06 浏览次数:143

 

乡党篇第十

 

本篇共27章,集中记载了孔子的容色言动、衣食住行,颂扬孔子是个一举一动都符合礼的正人君子。例如孔子在面见君时、面见大夫时的态度;他出入于公门和出使别国时的表现,都显示出正直、仁德的品格。本篇中还记载了孔子日常生活的一些侧面,为人们全面了解孔子、研究孔子,提供了生动的素材。

 

101 孔子于乡党,恂恂(1)如也,似不能言者。其在宗庙、朝廷,便便(2)言,唯谨尔。

 

【注释】

(1)恂恂:音xù,温和恭顺。

(2)便便:辩,善于辞令。

 

【译文】

孔子在本乡的地方上显得很温和恭敬,像是不会说话的样子。但他在宗庙里、朝廷上,却很善于言辞,只是说得比较谨慎而已。

 

102 朝,与下大夫言,侃侃(1)如也;与上大夫言,訚訚(2)如也。君在,踧踖(3)如也,与与(4)如也。

 

【注释】

(1)侃侃:说话理直气壮,不卑不亢,温和快乐的样子。

(2)訚訚:音yín,正直,和颜悦色而又能直言诤辩。

(3)踧踖:音cú jí,恭敬而不安的样子。

(4)与与:小心谨慎、威仪适中的样子。

 

【译文】

孔子在上朝的时候,(君还没有到来,)同下大夫说话,温和而快乐的样子;同上大夫说话,正直而公正的样子;君已经来了,恭敬而心中不安的样子,但又仪态适中。

 

103 君召使摈(1),色勃如也(2);足躩(3)如也。揖所与立,左右手,衣前后,襜(4)如也。趋进,翼如也(5)。宾退,必复命曰:“宾不顾矣。”

 

【注释】

(1)摈:音bìn,动词,负责招待国君的官员。

(2)色勃如也:脸色立即庄重起来。

(3)足躩:躩,音jué,脚步快的样子。

(4)襜:音chān,整齐之貌。

(5)翼如也:如鸟儿展翅一样。

 

【译文】

君召孔子去接待宾客,孔子脸色立即庄重起来,脚步也快起来,他向和他站在一起的人作揖,手向左或向右作揖,衣服前后摆动,却整齐不乱。快步走的时候,像鸟儿展开双翅一样。宾客走后,必定君主回报说:“客人已经不回头张望了。”

 

104 入公门,鞠躬如(1)也,如不容。立不中门,行不履阈(2)。过位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。摄齐(3)升堂,鞠躬如也,屏气似不息者。出,降一等(4),逞(5)颜色,怡怡如也。没阶(6),趋进,翼如也。复其位,踧踖如也。

 

【注释】

(1)鞠躬如:谨慎而恭敬的样子。

(2)履阈:阈,音yù,门槛,脚踩门坎。

(3)摄齐:齐,音zī,衣服的下摆。摄,提起。提起衣服的下摆。

(4)降一等:从台阶上走下一级。

(5)逞:舒展开,松口气。

(6)没阶:走完了台阶。

 

【译文】

孔子走进朝廷的大门,谨慎而恭敬的样子,好像没有他的容身之地。站,他不站在门的中间;走,也不踩门坎。经过君的座位时,他脸色立刻庄重起来,脚步也加快起来,说话也好像中气不足一样。提起衣服下摆向堂上走的时候,恭敬谨慎的样子,憋住气好像不呼吸一样。退出来,走下台阶,脸色便舒展开了,怡然自得的样子。走完了台阶,快快地向前走几步,姿态像鸟儿展翅一样。回到自己的位置,是恭敬而不安的样子。

 

105 执圭(1),鞠躬如也,如不胜。上如揖,下如授。勃如战色(2),足蹜蹜(3),如有循(4)。享礼(5),有容色。私觌(6),愉愉如也。

 

【注释】

(1)圭:一种上圆下方的玉器,举行典礼时,不同身份的人拿着不同的圭。出使邻国,大夫拿着圭作为代表君主的凭信。

(2)战色:战战兢兢的样子。

(3)蹜蹜:小步走路的样子。

(4)如有循:循,沿着。好像沿着一条直线往前走一样。

(5)享礼:享,献上。指向对方贡献礼物的仪式。使者受到接见后,接着举行献礼仪式。

(6)觌:音dí,会见。

 

【译文】

(孔子出使别的诸侯国,)拿着圭,恭敬谨慎,像是举不起来的样子。向上举时好像在作揖,放在下面时好像是给人递东西。脸色庄重得像战栗的样子,步子很小,好像沿着一条直线往前走。在举行赠送礼物的仪式时,显得和颜悦色。和国君举行私下会见的时候,更轻松愉快了。

 

【评析】

以上这五章,集中记载了孔子在朝、在乡的言谈举止、音容笑貌,给人留下十分深刻的印象。孔子在不同的场合,对待不同的人,往往容貌、神态、言行都不同。他在家乡时,给人的印象是谦逊、和善的老实人;他在朝廷上,则态度恭敬而有威仪,不卑不亢,敢于讲话,他在君面前,温和恭顺,局促不安,庄重严肃又诚惶诚恐。所有这些,为人们深入研究孔子,提供了具体的资料。

 

106 君子不以绀緅饰(1),红紫不以为亵服(2)。当暑,袗絺绤(3),必表而出之(4)。缁衣(5),羔裘(6);素衣,麑(7)裘;黄衣,狐裘。亵裘长,短右袂(8)。必有寝衣(9),长一身有半。狐貉之厚以居(10)。去丧,无所不佩。非帷裳(11),必杀之(12)。羔裘玄冠(13)不以吊(14)。吉月(15),必朝服而朝。

 

【注释】

(1)不以绀緅饰:绀,音gàn,深青透红,斋戒时服装的颜色。緅,音zōu,黑中透红,丧服的颜色。这里是说,不以深青透红或黑中透红的颜色布给平常穿的衣服镶上边作饰物。

(2)红紫不以为亵服:亵服,平时在家里穿的衣服。古人认为,红紫不是正色,便服不宜用红紫色。

(3)袗絺绤:袗,音zhěn,单衣。絺,音chī,细葛布。绤,音xì,粗葛布。这里是说,穿粗的或细的葛布单衣。

(4)必表而出之:把麻布单衣穿在外面,里面还要衬有内衣。

(5)缁衣:黑色的衣服。

(6)羔裘:羔皮衣。古代的羔裘都是黑羊皮,毛皮向外。

(7)麑:音ní,小鹿,白色。

(8)短右袂:袂,音mè,袖子。右袖短一点,是为了便于做事。

(9)寝衣:睡衣。

(10)狐貉之厚以居:狐貉之厚,厚毛的狐貉皮。居,坐。

(11)帷裳:上朝和祭祀时穿的礼服,用整幅布制作,不加以裁剪。折叠缝上。

(12)必杀之:一定要裁去多余的布。杀,裁。

(13)羔裘玄冠:黑色皮礼貌。

(14)不以吊:不用于丧事。

(15)吉月:每月初一。一说正月初一。

 

【译文】

君子不用深青透红或黑中透红的布镶边,不用红色或紫色的布做平常在家穿的衣服。夏天穿粗的或细的葛布单衣,但一定要套在内衣外面。黑色的羔羊皮袍,配黑色的罩衣。白色的鹿皮袍,配白色的罩衣。黄色的狐皮袍,配黄色的罩衣。平常在家穿的皮袍做得长一些,右边的袖子短一些。睡觉一定要有睡衣,要有一身半长。用狐貉的厚毛皮做坐垫。丧服期满,脱下丧服后,便佩带上各种各样的装饰品。如果不是礼服,一定要加以剪裁。不穿着黑色的羔羊皮袍和戴着黑色的帽子去吊丧。每月初一,一定要穿着礼服去朝拜君主。

 

107 (1),必有明衣(2),布。齐必变食(3),居必迁坐(4)

 

【注释】

(1)齐:同斋。

(2)明衣:斋前沐浴后穿的浴衣。

(3)变食:改变平常的饮食。指不饮酒,不吃葱、蒜等有刺激味的东西。

(4)居必迁坐:指从内室迁到外室居住,不和妻妾同房。

 

【译文】

斋戒沐浴的时候,一定要有浴衣,用布做的。斋戒的时候,一定要改变平常的饮食,居住也一定搬移地方,(不与妻妾同房)。

 

108 食不厌精,脍(1)不厌细。食饐(2)而餲(3),鱼馁(4)而肉败(5),不食。色恶,不食。臭恶,不食。失饪(6),不食。不时(7),不食,割不正(8),不食。不得其酱,不食。肉虽多,不使胜食气(9)。唯酒无量,不及乱(10)。沽酒市脯(11),不食。不撤姜食,不多食。

 

【注释】

(1)脍:音kuài,切细的鱼、肉。

(2)饐:音yì,陈旧。食物放置时间长了。

(3)餲:音ài,变味了。

(4)馁:音něi,鱼腐烂,这里指鱼不新鲜。

(5)败:肉腐烂,这里指肉不新鲜。

(6)饪:烹调制作饭菜。

(7)不时:应时,时鲜。

(8)割不正:肉切得不方正。

(9)气:同“饩”,音xì,即粮食。

(10)不及乱:乱,指酒醉。不到酒醉时。

(11)脯:音fǔ,熟肉干。

【译文】

粮食不嫌舂得精,鱼和肉不嫌切得细。粮食陈旧和变味了,鱼和肉腐烂了,都不吃。食物的颜色变了,不吃。气味变了,不吃。烹调不当,不吃。不时新的东西,不吃。肉切得不方正,不吃。佐料放得不适当,不吃。席上的肉虽多,但吃的量不超过米面的量。只有酒没有限制,但不喝醉。从市上买来的肉干和酒,不吃。每餐必须有姜,但也不多吃。

 

109 祭于公,不宿肉(1),祭肉(2)不出三日。出三日,不食之矣。

 

【注释】

(1)不宿肉:不使肉过夜。古代大夫参加国君祭祀以后,可以得到国君赐的祭肉。但祭祀活动一般要持续二三天,所以这些肉就已经不新鲜,不能再过夜了。超过三天,就不能再过夜了。

(2)祭肉:这是祭祀用的肉。

 

【译文】

孔子参加君祭祀典礼时分到的肉,不能留到第二天。祭祀用过的肉不超过三天。超过三天,就不吃了。

 

【评析】

以上4章里,记述了孔子的衣着和饮食习惯。孔子对“礼”的遵循,不仅表现在与君和大夫们见面时的言谈举止和仪式,而且表现在衣着方面。他对祭祀时、服丧时和平时所穿的衣服都有不同的要求,如单衣、罩衣、麻衣、皮袍、睡衣、浴衣、礼服、便服等,都有不同的规定。在吃的方面,“食不厌精,脍不厌细”,而且对于食物,有八种他不吃。吃了,就有害于健康。

 

1010 食不语,寝不言。

 

【译文】

吃饭的时候不说话,睡觉的时候也不说话。

 

1011 虽疏食菜羹(1),瓜祭(2),必齐(3)如也。

 

【注释】

(1)菜羹:用菜做成的汤。

(2)瓜祭:古人在吃饭前,把席上各种食品分出少许,放在食具之间祭祖。

(3)齐:同斋。

 

【译文】

即使是粗米饭蔬菜汤,吃饭前也要把它们取出一些来祭祖,而且表情要像斋戒时那样严肃恭敬。

 

1012 (1)不正,不坐。

 

【注释】

(1)席:古代没有椅子和桌子,都坐在铺于地面的席子上。

 

【译文】

席子放得不端正,不坐。

 

1013 乡人饮酒(1),杖者(2)出,斯出矣。

 

【注释】

(1)乡人饮酒:指当时的乡饮酒礼。

(2)杖者:拿拐杖的人,指老年人。

 

【译文】

行乡饮酒的礼仪结束后,(孔子)一定要等老年人先出去,然后自己才出去。

 

1014 乡人傩(1),朝服而立于阼阶(2)

 

【注释】

(1)傩:音nuó。古代迎神驱鬼的宗教仪式。

(2)阼阶:阼,音zuò,东面的台阶。主人立在大堂东面的台阶,在这里欢迎客人。

 

【译文】

乡里人举行迎神驱鬼的宗教仪式时,孔子总是穿着朝服站在东边的台阶上。

 

1015 (1)人于他邦,再拜而送之(2)

 

【注释】

(1)问:问候。古代人在问候时往往要致送礼物。

(2)再拜而送之:在送别客人时,两次拜别。

 

【译文】

(孔子)托人向在其他诸侯国的朋友问候送礼,便向受托者拜两次送行。

 

【评析】

以上6章中,记载了孔子举止言谈的某些规矩或者习惯。他时时处处以正人君子的标准要求自己,使自己的言行尽量符合礼的规定。他认为,“礼”是至高无上的,是神圣不可侵犯的,那么,一投足、一举手都必须依照礼的原则。这一方面是孔子个人修养的具体反映,一方面也是他向学生们传授知识和仁德时所身体力行的。

 

 

1016 康子馈药,拜而受之。曰:“丘未达,不敢尝。”

 

【译文】

季康子给孔子赠送药品,孔子拜谢之后接受了,说:“我对药性不了解,不敢尝。”

 

1017 厩焚。子退朝,曰:“伤人乎?”不问马。

 

【译文】

马棚失火烧掉了。孔子退朝回来,说:“伤人了吗?”不问马的情况怎么样。

 

【评析】

孔子家里的马棚失火被烧掉了。当他听到这个消息后,首先问人有没有受伤。有人说,儒家学说是“人学”,这一条可以作佐证材料。他只问人,不问马,表明他重人不重财,十分关心下面的人。事实上,这是中国自古以来人道主义思想的发端。

 

1018 君赐食,必正席先尝之。君赐腥(1),必熟而荐(2)之。君赐生,必畜之。侍食于君,君祭,先饭。

 

【注释】

(1)腥:牛肉。

(2)荐:供奉。

 

【译文】

君赐给熟食,孔子一定摆正座席先尝一尝。君赐给生肉,一定煮熟了,先给祖宗上供。君赐给活物,一定要饲养起来。同君一道吃饭,在君举行饭前祭礼的时候,一定要先尝一尝。

 

【评析】

古时候君主吃饭前,要有人先尝一尝,君主才吃。孔子对君十分尊重。他在与君吃饭时,都主动尝一下,表明他对礼的遵从。

 

1019 疾,君视之,东首(1),加朝服,拖绅(2)

 

【注释】

(1)东首:头朝东。

(2)绅:束在腰间的大带子。

 

【译文】

孔子病了,君来探视,他便头朝东躺着,身上盖上朝服,拖着大带子。

 

【评析】

孔子患了病,躺在床上,君来探视他,他无法起身穿朝服,这似乎对君不尊重,有违于礼,于是他就把朝服盖在身上。这反映出孔子即使在病榻上,也不会失礼于国君。

 

1020 君命召,不俟驾行矣。

 

【译文】

君召见(孔子),他不等车马驾好就先步行走去了。

 

1021 入太庙,每事问(1)

 

【注释】

(1)此章重出。译文参见《八佾》篇第三之第15章。

 

1022 朋友(1)死,无所归,曰:“于我殡(2)。”

 

【注释】

(1)朋友:指与孔子志同道合的人。

(2)殡:停放灵柩和埋葬都可以叫殡,这里是泛指丧葬事务。

 

【译文】

(孔子的)朋友死了,没有亲属负责敛埋,孔子说:“丧事由我来办吧。”

 

1023 朋友之馈,虽车马,非祭肉,不拜。

 

【译文】

朋友馈赠物品,即使是车马,不是祭肉,(孔子在接受时)也是不拜的。

 

【评析】

孔子把祭肉看得比车马还重要,这是为什么呢?因为祭肉关系到“孝”的问题。用肉祭祀祖先之后,这块肉就不仅仅是一块可以食用的东西了,而是对祖先尽孝的一个载体。

 

1024 寝不尸,居不客。

 

【译文】

(孔子)睡觉不像死尸一样挺着,平日家居也不像作客或接待客人时那样庄重严肃。

 

1025 见齐衰(1)者,虽狎(2),必变。见冕者与瞽者(3),虽亵(4),必以貌。凶服(5)者式(6)之。式负版者(7)。有盛馔(8),必变色而作(9)。迅雷风烈必变。

 

【注释】

(1)齐衰:zī cuī,指丧服。

(2)狎:音xiá,亲近的意思。

(3)瞽者:盲人,指乐师。

(4)亵:音xiè,常见、熟悉。

(5)凶服:丧服。

(6)式:同轼,古代车辆前部的横木。这里作动词用。遇见地位高的人或其他人时,驭手身子向前微俯,伏在横木上,以示尊敬或者同情。这在当时是一种礼节。

(7)负版者:背负国家图籍的人。当时无纸,用木版来书写,故称“版”。

(8)馔:音zhuàn,饮食。盛馔,盛大的宴席。

(9)作:站起来。

 

【译文】

(孔子)看见穿丧服的人,即使是关系很亲密的,也一定要把态度变得严肃起来。看见当官的和盲人,即使是常在一起的,也一定要有礼貌。在乘车时遇见穿丧服的人,便俯伏在车前横木上(以示同情)。遇见背负国家图籍的人,也这样做(以示敬意)。(作客时,)如果有丰盛的筵席,就神色一变,并站起来致谢。遇见迅雷大风,一定要改变神色(以示对上天的敬畏)。

 

1026 车,必正立,执绥(1)。车中,不内顾(2),不疾言(3),不亲指(4)

 

【注释】

(1)绥:上车时扶手用的索带。

(2)内顾:回头看。

(3)疾言:大声说话。

(4)不亲指:不用自己的手指划。

 

【译文】

上车时,一定先直立站好,然后拉着扶手带上车。在车上,不回头,不高声说话,不用自己的手指指点点。

 

【评析】

以上这几章,讲的都是孔子如何遵从周礼的。在许多举动上,他都能按礼行事,对不同的人、不同的事、不同的环境,应该有什么表情、什么动作、什么语言,他都一丝不苟,准确而妥贴。所以,孔子的学生们在谈起这些时,津津乐道,极其佩服。

 

 

1027 色斯举矣(1),翔而后集(2)。曰:“山梁雌雉(3),时哉时哉!(4)”子路共(5)之,三嗅而作(6)

 

【注释】

(1)色斯举矣:色,脸色。举,鸟飞起来。

(2)翔而后集:飞翔一阵,然后落到树上。鸟群停在树上叫“集”。

(3)山梁雌雉:聚集在山梁上的母野鸡。

(4)时哉时哉:得其时呀!得其时呀!这是说野鸡时运好,能自由飞翔,自由落下。

(5)共:同“拱”。

(6)三嗅而作:嗅应为狊字之误。狊,音jù,鸟张开两翅。一本作“戛”字,鸟的长叫声。

 

【译文】

孔子在山谷中行走,看见一群野鸡在那儿飞,孔子神色动了一下,野鸡飞翔了一阵落在树上。孔子说:“这些山梁上的母野鸡,得其时呀!得其时呀!”子路向他们拱拱手,野鸡便叫了几声飞走了。

【评析】

这里似乎是在游山观景,其实孔子是有感而发。他感到山谷里的野鸡能够自由飞翔,自由落下,这是“得其时”,而自己却不得其时,东奔西走,却没有获得普遍响应。因此,他看到野鸡时,神色动了一下,随之发出了这样的感叹。

 

BOOK X   XIANG DANG

10.1 Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were not able to speak. When he was in the prince’s ancestral temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.

 

10.2 When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.

 

10.3 When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, “The visitor is not turning round any more.”

 

10.4 When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.

 

10.5 When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.

 

10.6 The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in the ornaments of his dress. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment. Over lamb’s fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn’s fur one of white; and over fox’s fur one of yellow. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle. His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below. He did not wear lamb’s fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.

 

10.7 When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.

 

10.8  He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mince meat cut quite small. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market. He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.

 

10.9 When he had been assisting at the prince’s sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.

 

10.10 When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

 

10.11 Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

 

10.12 If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.

10.13 When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staves going out, he also went out immediately after.

 

10.14 When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

 

10.15 When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

 

10.16 Ji Kang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, “I do not know it. I dare not taste it.”

 

10.17 The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, “Has any man been hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.

 

10.18 When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.

 

10.19 When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.

 

10.20 When the prince’s order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.

 

10.21 When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.

 

10.22 When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he would say, “I will bury him.”

 

10.23 When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

 

10.24 In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.

 

10.25 When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

 

10.26 When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

 

10.27 Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles. The Master said, “There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!” Zilu made a motion to it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.